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Artemisia Vulgaris High Quality

Artemisia vulgaris, the common mugwort,[2] is a species of flowering plant in the daisy family Asteraceae. It is one of several species in the genus Artemisia commonly known as mugwort, although Artemisia vulgaris is the species most often called mugwort. It is also occasionally known as riverside wormwood,[3] felon herb, chrysanthemum weed, wild wormwood, old Uncle Henry, sailor's tobacco, naughty man, old man, or St. John's plant (not to be confused with St John's wort).[4] Mugworts have been used medicinally and as culinary herbs.

artemisia vulgaris


A. vulgaris is native to temperate Europe, Asia, North Africa, and Alaska, and is naturalized in North America,[5] where some consider it an invasive weed. It is a very common plant growing on nitrogenous soils, such as waste places, roadsides and other weedy and uncultivated areas.[6]

Historically, A. vulgaris was referred to as the "mother of herbs" and has been widely used in the traditional Chinese, European, and Hindu medicine. It possesses a wide range of supposed pharmacological uses, including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antispasmolytic, antinociceptive, antibacterial, antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, and antifungal properties.[12]

A. vulgaris houses a variety of phytochemicals which are responsible for its pharmacological properties. The phytochemicals belong to classes including flavonoids, essential oils, phenolic acids, coumarins, sterols, carotenoids, vitamins, and sesquiterpene lactones, among many others.[13] Examples of the phytochemicals include vulgarin, artemisinin, scopoletin, camphene, camphor, sabinene, and some derivatives of quercetin and kaempferol.[12][13]

The Aedes aegypti L. mosquito transmits dengue and yellow fever, which cause millions of death every year. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that has rapidly spread worldwide particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates areas. The present study denotes a simple and eco-friendly biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Artemisia vulgaris L. leaf extract as reducing agent. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Zeta Potential (ZP), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX). Solid state 13C NMR was utilized to confirm the presence of larvicidal compound Beta caryophyllene in the synthesized AuNPs. Larvicidal activity of the synthesized AuNPs was measured against A. aegypti over 12 and 24h exposure periods and compared with essential oil in various concentrations (25ppm, 50ppm, 100ppm, 200ppm and 400ppm). After a 12h exposure period, the larvicidal activity of 3rd instar larva by AuNPs showed LC50=156.55ppm and LC90=2506.21ppm, while and essential oil displayed LC50=128.99ppm and LC90=1477.08ppm. Larvicidal activity of 4th instar larva by AuNPs showed LC50=97.90ppm and LC90=1677.36ppm, while essential oil displayed LC50=136.15ppm and LC90=2223.55ppm. After a 24h of exposure period, larvicidal activity of 3rd instar larva by AuNPs showed LC50=62.47ppm and LC90=430.16ppm and essential oil showed LC50=111.15ppm and LC90=1441.51ppm. The larvicidal activity of 4th instar larva and AuNPs displayed LC50=43.01ppm and LC90=376.70ppm and for essential oil LC50=74.42ppm, LC90=858.36ppm. Histopathology of A. aegypti with AuNPs for 3rdand 4th stage larvae after 24h exposure at the highest mortality concentration (400ppm) showed that the area of the midgut, epithelial cells and cortex were highly affected. The present findings demonstrate that the biosynthesis of AuNPs using A. vulgaris leaf extracts could be an eco-friendly, safer nanobiopesticide and treatment against A. aegypti which could be used to combat of dengue fever.

Artemisia vulgaris L. (common mugwort) is one of the best-known species of this genus, which has a widespread distribution in the natural habitats worldwide (Europe, Asia, North and South America, and Africa). For many centuries, this species has been mainly used for treating gynecological ailments and gastrointestinal diseases [3,4,5,6,7]. Recently, researches have proved that this species exhibits antioxidant, hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective, antispasmolytic, analgesic, estrogenic, cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, hypotensive, and broncholytic effects [8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17].

The presence of essential oil in A. vulgaris contributes to the significance of this species as a culinary spice in the food industry in various regions of the world. Currently, this species is also increasingly used in the production of cosmetics in Europe as well as in Asia and North America [14,18,19,20].

In Poland, 10 different species, including A. vulgaris and Artemisia absinthium, are found in the natural habitats [27]. Some of them (e.g., Artemisia petrosa Baung and Artemisia pontica L.) are distributed only on small areas in the country and are on the list of endangered plant species [27,28].

One of the most popular species worldwide is A. vulgaris (common mugwort). It is known by various synonymous Latin names, presented in Table 1. This can be attributed to the broad distribution of this species on all continents and the differences in its chemical and genetic composition, which is characteristic of the plants of different origins.

In Europe and North America, as well as in Altai and Russia, the most commonly observed ploidy of A. vulgaris was 2n = 16 (x = 8) [38], while specimens from the high Himalayas, which underwent a period of glaciation, were found to be mainly diploids having 2n = 18 chromosomes [39]. At different elevations in this same region, examples of tetraploid (2n = 36) and hexaploid (2n = 54) were also found [39]. However, biotypes from other regions of the world have been reported with chromosome numbers of 2n = 16, 18, 24, or 36 [7].

The distribution of heterochromatin varies between taxa. The population of A. vulgaris is characterized by centromeric or pericentromeric heterochromatin. The cytogenetic data, especially those related to the heterochromatin, may be helpful in understanding the role played by polyploidy in the evolution of the genus Artemisia. The diploid and tetraploid taxa were identified to have different chromosome structures: the tetraploid species studied showed two types of heterochromatin (AT- and CG-rich), whereas the diploids showed only the GC-rich regions [40].

The species reproduces from seeds, which can produce up to 200,000 per year depending on the habitat [49], but so far this has been observed only in the native places of occurrence, namely in Asia and Europe. Some biotypes of this plant do not produce reproductive seeds [5]. The seeds of A. vulgaris spread through wind, beetles, and flies [47]. The plant usually reproduces vegetatively with the help of its roots, which can survive in the ground during winter. In the northern USA, pieces of roots are often moved long distances by local floods [7].

At present, the plant is abundantly seen in many regions of the world, ranging from the Himalayas in Asia, through Europe, to the warm areas of North America [22,30]. The only continent where A. vulgaris does not occur is Antarctica [7].

Individual populations of A. vulgaris are well adapted to live in a wide range of pH and various soil types, including sandy and loamy. Due to its extensive root system, this plant can quickly occupy large areas [7]. Controlling the spread of A. vulgaris is very difficult because only a few effective ways can limit its growth [5,7].

The presence of essential oil is an interesting characteristic of A. vulgaris. A major part of the oil extracted from the aerial parts is constituted by monoterpenoids (72%) and sesquiterpenoids (26%). Among the volatile compounds, the following are the most commonly identified: 1,8-cineole, sabinene, camphor, camphene, caryophyllene oxide, α-thujone, and β-thujone (Table 3 and Figure 2).

Many experiments have revealed the significant differences in the quality and quantity of the components of the essential oils obtained from the A. vulgaris plants grown in different parts of the world (Table 4).

A monograph of the raw material A. vulgaris herba was prepared by the German Commission in 1988. This document listed only the traditional, above-mentioned uses of the herb and emphasized that the effectiveness of preparations based on A. vulgaris had not been confirmed and hence they are not recommended for therapeutic uses [51].

In one of the latest editions of European Pharmacopoeia [52] and the French Pharmacopoeia [53], A. vulgaris is listed as a homeopathic raw material. Its application includes the treatment of irregular menstrual cycles and menopausal symptoms [7], and nervous disorders such as sleepwalking, seizures, epilepsy, and anxiety [99]. The homeopathic medications are prepared using a fresh-root tincture, which is made of 65% ethanol. The tincture should contain a minimum of 0.01% (w/w) derivatives of hydroxycinnamic acid, quantified as the equivalents of chlorogenic acid [100].

In 2006, Blagojević et al. from Serbia and Montenegro also studied the effects of A. vulgaris essential oil on various microorganisms. The oil was isolated from the aerial and underground parts of the plant by steam distillation. After 10- and 30-fold dilutions, the zone of inhibition of pathogen growth on paper filters was examined. The oil extracted from the aerial parts exhibited inhibitory activity against various bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus) and fungi (C. albicans and Aspergillus niger), which was attributed to its high levels of 1,8-cineole and β-thujone. On the other hand, the oil extracted from the underground parts of the plant exhibited only a low activity against the listed pathogens, due to the low level of 1,8-cineole and the lack of β-thujone in the roots [16]. 041b061a72

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